Vector control and Isolation of Larvicidal Compounds from Melia azedarach (A. Juss) Leaf using Anopheles gambiae Larva.
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Background: Despite ongoing efforts to control the disease, malaria remains a serious threat to the human race on earth. This disease is ubiquitous in Africa, especially those countries that are categorized as undeveloped. The present investigation aims to evaluate and isolate larvicidal principles in the leaves and stem bark of Melia azedarach from the Meliaceae family using the fourth instar larvae of An. gambiae.
Methods: Larvicidal activity was evaluated by exposing 4th instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae to serial concentrations (0.625-10 mg/mL) of extracts, fractions, and compounds of Melia azedarach. Larval mortality was recorded after 24h of exposure and 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values were determined. LResults were compared to those of larvae exposed to N, N- diethyl-m-toluamid (DEET), the reference insecticides, and untreated groups.
Results:Larvicidal activity of the crude methanol extract of both leaves and stem bark of M. azedarach were 5.80 and 7.59 mg/mL respectively. The hexane soluble fraction of M. azedarach leaf displayed highly lethality at 0.625mg/mL with LC50 of 0.025 then the remaining fractions. Similarly, larvicidal activity of DEET was signifificantly low (LC50 = 1.09 mg/mL) than the hexane fractions (p < 0.05). Fractionation and purifification of the active fractions led to the isolation of three compounds. Sub fraction 35-49 (designated as MAZLFF) of M. azedarach showed larvicidal activity on larvae with LC50 of 0.19 mg/mL. Two compounds were isolated from MAZLFF using preparative thin layer chromatographic. Compounds 2 and 3 had Rf values of 0.75 and 0.63 respectively on silica gel G using CH3Cl3 :CH3OH (9.5: 0.5) and CH3Cl3 : Acetone (9:1) re spectively. Compounds 2 and 3 showed a positive test for the presence of triterpenoids after spraying with anisaldehyde/H2SO4 . The presence of triterpenoids may be responsible for the insecticidal activity observed in the two compounds isolated from the leaves of M. azedarach.
Conclusion: The leaves of M. azedarach showed potent anti larvicidal activity. Compounds from this plant may serve as sources for the development of malaria vector control compounds.
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