Contraception Knowledge and Use Consistency among Female undergraduates in two North-East States, Nigeria


  • Idris Onuche Suleiman Department of Public Health, Faculty of Basic and Applied Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria.
  • Daniel Chukwuyere Emeto Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
  • Ahmed Kayode Abdulmumin Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
  • Nuhu Tanko Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
  • Ahmed Abdullahi Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.



Undergraduates, Consistency, Knowledge, Contraceptive, Contraception


Background: Unsafe sexual intercourse can lead to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Contraception is an important intervention to prevent these damaging effects. This study accessed the contraceptive knowledge and use consistency by female undergraduate students in two North-East States, Nigeria to close existing unmet needs for sexually active teenagers and young adults.

Methods: The study was an institutional-based cross-sectional survey. Amultistage sampling method was used to select 299 female students from two universities in North-East, Nigeria. A structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on respondent's sociodemographics, knowledge, and regularity of contraceptives use. Data analysis was done with p-value at 0.05.

Results: One hundred and fifty-five (51.8%) respondents had good knowledge of contraception. The contraceptives most known were; Condoms (60.9%), implants (52.8%), and Oral pills (51.8%). While two-thirds of the respondents were sexually active, only 38.9% of them consistently use contraceptives. Marital status (AOR= 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01–0.79) and students' place of residence (AOR= 2.63, 95% CI = 1.27-5.41) significantly predicted consistent contraceptive use.

Conclusion: Knowledge of contraceptives among undergraduates was inadequate. Its consistent use among sexually active ones is lacking. There is a need to strengthen and expand existing social and behavioural change communication by utilizing new media to promote key contraceptive information. 


Henry U. Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among youths in Abuja metropolis 2021. Accessed November 14, 2023.

U N I C E F. A d o l e s c e n t s U N I C E Fhps:// 2022. Accessed November 14, 2023

UNFPA. The power of 1.8 billion. Adolescents, youth and the transformation of the future. UNFPA: State of world population. 2014 Accessed November 14, 2023.

Darroch JE, Woog V, Bankole A, Ashford LS. Adding it up: Costs and benefits of meeting the contraceptive needs of adolescents. 2016 Accessed March 12, 2023.

Alexander M, Garda L, Kanade S, Jejeebhoy S, Ganatra B. Correlates of premarital relationships among unmarried youth in Pune district, Maharashtra, India. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2007 Dec;33(4):150-9. doi: 10.1363/ifpp.33.150.07.

Netshikweta ML. Knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding contraception among secondary school learners in the Limpopo

Province. University of South Africa (PhD Thesis, 2009) Accessed March 12, 2023.

Aigbiremolen AO, Duru CB, Abah SO, Abejegah C, Asalu OB, Oriaifo B. Contraception among tertiary students: knowledge, use and behaviour of female undergraduates in Edo state, Nigeria Global Journal of Medical Research-K Interdisciplinary . 2014; 4(2): 1-6

Malhotra S. Impact of the sexual revolution: consequences of risky sexual behaviors. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons.


W H O . A d o l e s c e n t p r e g n a n c y W H O 2003. Accessed March 12, 2023

Hussain R. Unintended pregnancy and abortion in Uganda. Guttmacher Institute, Report number: 2, 2 0 1 3 Accessed March 12, 2023

WHO. WHO guidelines for preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries. 2011. March 12, 2023

Ganchimeg T, Ota E, Morisaki N, Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P, Zhang J, Yamdamsuren B, Temmerman M, Say L, Tunçalp Ö, Vogel JP,

Souza JP, Mori R; WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal Newborn Health Research Network. Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among

adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study. BJOG. 2014 Mar;121 Suppl 1:40-8. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12630.

Idowu A, Aremu OA, Fehintola FO, Popoola GO. Knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception by female junior secondary school students in an urban community of Oyo-state, south west, Nigeria. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2 0 1 7 N o v ; 6 ( 1 1 ) : 4 7 5 9 - 4 7 6 5 h t t p s : / / d o i . o r g / 1 0 . 1 8 2 0 3 / 2 3 2 0 -1770.ijrcog20174983

Nsubuga H, Sekandi JN, Sempeera H, Makumbi FE. Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female University students in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Womens Health. 2016 Jan 27;16:6. doi: 10.1186/s12905-016-0286-6.

UNDP. SDG goal 3: Good health and well-being UNDP . 2023. Accessed March 14, 2023.

MacQuarrie KLD. Unmet need for family planning among young women: levels and trends. ICF International, DHS comparative reports N u m b e r 3 4 ; 2 0 1 4 . Accessed November 14, 2023.

Yau S, Adamu Y, Wongsawat P, Songthap A. Prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among vocational schools adolescents in Northern Thailand. J Health Res 2022. 36(2): 300-310 doi:

Starrs AM, Ezeh AC, Barker G, Basu A, Bertrand JT, Blum R, Coll-Seck AM, Grover A, Laski L, Roa M, Sathar ZA, Say L, Serour GI, Singh S,

Stenberg K, Temmerman M, Biddlecom A, Popinchalk A, Summers C, Ashford LS. Accelerate progress-sexual and reproductive health and rights for all: report of the GuttmacherLancet Commission. Lancet. 2018 Jun 30;391(10140):2642-2692. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30293-9. Epub 2018 May 9.

UNFPA. Family planning UNFPA. 2023. Accessed March 18, 2023

Malhotra S.Impact of the sexual revolution: consequences of risky sexual behavior. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 2008;13(3): 88-90

MacPhail C, Pettifor AE, Pascoe S, Rees HV. Contraception use and pregnancy among 15-24 year old South African women: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. BMC Med. 2007 Oct 28;5:31. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-5-31.

NPC. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2 0 1 8 N P C . 2 0 1 9 . March 16, 2023

Idonije BO, Oluba OM, and Otamere HO. Astudy of knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among secondary school pupils in Ekpoma, Nigeria. Journal of Pharmacy and Clinical Science 2011. 2: 22-27

Akinsoji AA, Olufunmilola AA, Idowu AA, Pius AO. Sexual and Contraceptive Practices among Female Undergraduates in a Nigerian Tertiary Institution. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2015 Jul;25(3):209-16. doi: 10.4314/ejhs.v25i3.3.

Black A, Guilbert E, Co-Authors, Costescu D, Dunn S, Fisher W, Kives S, Mirosh M, Norman WV, Pymar H, Reid R, Roy G, Varto H,

Waddington A, Wagner MS, Whelan AM, Special Contributors, Ferguson C, Fortin C, Kielly M, Mansouri S, Todd N. Kielly M, Mansouri S, Todd N. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4). J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015 Oct;37(10):936-4 2 . h tt p s:// d o i. o r g / 1 0 . 1 0 1 6 /s 1 7 0 1 -2163(16)30054-8

Abiodun OM, Balogun OR. Sexual activity and contraceptive use among young female students of tertiary educational institutions in Ilorin, Nigeria. Contraception. 2009 Feb;79(2):146-9. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2008.08.002. Epub 2008 Nov 17.

Tanzania NBS.Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) 2010 Report Tanzania NBS. 2 0 1 1 . Accessed December 10, 2023

Sharma A, McCabe E, Jani S, Gonzalez A, Demissie S, Lee A. Knowledge and attitudes towards contraceptives among adolescents and

young adults. Contracept Reprod Med. 2021 Jan 5;6(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s40834-020-00144-3.

Ijirigho MI. Use of reproductive health information on contraception among female undergraduates of University of Ibadan. Library

Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). 2010. Paper 360

Ebuehi OM, Ekanem EE, Ebuehi OA. Knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in the University of Lagos, Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):90-5. doi: 10.4314/eamj.v83i3.9403.

Mulekhwa J and Nakasolo S. Knowledge, attitude and practices towards utilization of implants among women aged 15-45 years attending Bunapongo Health Centre III, Mbale district: Across-section study. Student's Journal of Health R e s e a r c h A f r i c a . 2 0 2 2 . 3 ( 6 ) : 1 2

Tchokossa MAand Adeyemi BA. Knowledge and use of contraceptives among female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ife central local government of Osun state. J Community Med Health Educ. 2018. 8: 614. DOI: 10.4172/2161-0711.1000614doi: 10.4172/2161-0711.1000614

Curtis KM, Jatlaoui TC, Tepper NK, Zapata LB, Horton LG, Jamieson DJ, Whiteman MK. U.S. selected practice recommendations for

c o n t r a c e p t i v e u s e , 2 0 1 6 M M W R . Recommendations and Reports 65(4):1-66 doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1

Todd N, Black A. Contraception for Adolescents. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2020 Feb 6;12(Suppl 1 ) : 2 8 - 4 0 . d o i :


Olika AK, Kitila SB, Terfa YB, Olika AK. Contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents in Ethiopia: trends and determinants from national demographic and health surveys. Reprod Health. 2021 May 25;18(1):104. doi: 10.1186/s12978-021-01161-4.

ntiri S, Ndirangu G, Kabue M, Biesma R, Stekelenburg J, Ouma C. Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Uptake and Associated Factors

among Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Kenya. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 May 1;16(9):1543. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16091543.

Hendrick CE, Cone JN, Cirullo J, Maslowsky J. Determinants of Long-acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) Initial and Continued Use

among Adolescents in the United States. Adolesc Res Rev. 2020 Sep;5(3):243-279. doi: 10.1007/s40894-019-00126-w. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Ott MA, Sucato GS; Committee on Adolescence. Contraception for adolescents. Pediatrics. 2014 Oct;134(4):e1257-81. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-2300.

Somba MJ, Mbonile M, Obure J, Mahande MJ. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates' students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. BMC Womens Health. 2014 Aug 7;14:94. doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-14-94.

Batwala VK, Nuwaha F, Mulogo EM, Bagenda F, Bajunirwe F, Mirembe JB. Contraceptive use among in and out-of school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda. East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):18-24. doi: 10.4314/eamj.v83i1.9356.

Ochako R, Mbondo M, Aloo S, Kaimenyi S, Thompson R, Temmerman M, Kays M. Barriers to modern contraceptive methods uptake among young women in Kenya: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2015 Feb 10;15:118. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1483-1.




How to Cite

Suleiman, I. O., Emeto, D. C., Abdulmumin, A. K., Tanko, N., & Abdullahi, A. (2024). Contraception Knowledge and Use Consistency among Female undergraduates in two North-East States, Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 58(1), 87–100.