Formulation and Evaluation of Antioxidant Topical Cream Using Ethanol Extract of Markhamia Tomentosa Leaves

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Ibilola Cardoso-Daodu
Ebuka Obi
Margaret Ilomuanya
Chukwuemeka Azubuike


Background: Global warming which results from the thinning of the ozone layer has led to an increase in the level of exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun. Long term exposure to these rays can lead to photo-aging. The aim of this study is to develop an antioxidant cream using ethanol extract of Markhamia tomentosa leaves as an active ingredient and to evaluate its physico-chemical properties as well as free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant activities.

Methods: The leaves of Markhamia tomentosa was obtained from Oke-Igbo, Ondo state, Nigeria in August 2019. The leaves of Markhamia tomentosa were dried, pulverized and macerated to obtain Markhamia tomentosa ethanol extract. Four water-in-oil emulsion creams containing Markhamia tomentosa ethanol leaf extract were formulated using fusion technique. Physico-chemical properties such as the pH, viscosity, skin irritancy, spreadability and organoleptic tests were evaluated. Subsequently the (1, 1-diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were also carried out.

Results: All formulations were brown, with a smooth and non-greasy feel on dermal application. They had no characteristic smell and were easily washed off the skin. Formulations had a pH that fell withinthe range of 5.5-7.5 which is safe for dermal application. All formulations had a spreadability above 100 mm2 g -1 and exhibited non-Newtonian properties with a decrease in viscosity at the increase of shear stress emphasizing the ease of spreadability. FMT1 (Markhamia tomentosa ethanol leaf extract cream) had the highest antioxidant activity which was concentration dependent, with a percentage radical scavenging activity of 76.48% and an absorbance of 0.276 in the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, at wavelengths of 517 and 700nm respectively.

Conclusion: This Markhamia tomentosa ethanol leaf extract cream formulation exhibited strong antioxidant properties and can serve as a valuable archetype that can be developed and translated to a pharmaceutical antioxidant formulation for clinical use.

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How to Cite
Cardoso-Daodu, I. ., Obi, E. ., Ilomuanya, M. ., & Azubuike, C. . (2022). Formulation and Evaluation of Antioxidant Topical Cream Using Ethanol Extract of Markhamia Tomentosa Leaves: The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 56(2). Retrieved from


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